Several of my books and articles focus on utopian, intentional communities. These consist of people who have come together to build communities with a common vision. Their mutually-held goals often are labeled “utopian”—by definition both perfect and unattainable. Because these goals are forever beyond reach, many use the word “intentional” rather than “utopian” to label them.   Whether defined by themselves or others, these fascinating groups differ from those around them in their beliefs and daily practices.


These “intentional communities” share four defining and distinguishing characteristics, according to Professor Timothy Miller (University of Kansas). In addition to sharing a vision, the members live in close proximity to one another. They share economic or material goods.  And they consist of at least three adults who are not biologically related.

Tensions Today and in Years Past

Whether existing today, such as the earth-centered Federation of Damanhur in Italy’s Piedmont region, or considered radical in the past, such as colonial America’s Quakers, each group’s shared visions unified members only to a degree. As my publications demonstrate, the visions also produced friction and tension. Of course, members sometimes struggled with outsiders as they attempted to live by their ideals. But they also wrestled with one another while determining their ideals within the communities.

A Few Examples

The examples are plenty, but here are only a few. When Shaker leaders introduced dietary restrictions into communities in the 19th century—calling for an end to tea, coffee, and cider consumption—controversy erupted. Not all habitual users were happy about “cold turkey” changes in their preferred beverages. In the 18th century, Elizabeth Ashbridge endured verbal and physical abuse as she was drawn to join the Quakers. Her husband, an “outsider,” was her chief persecutor as she became active in the faith. Even during recent years, as Damanhur has become more integral to politics of the Italian valley where it exists, some members have left with complaints about financial and emotional control and lack of freedom.

Additional insights to utopian, intentional communities and practices as I teach and write about them will be posted here. Check back, or contact me for more information.

Timothy Miller on Communes in America, 1975-2000

For anyone interested in alternative communities in the US, Tim Miller’s book on the last quarter of the 20th century is a thorough and accessible read. Miller started studying and writing about communal life as a young scholar of American religious history. No one... More >

Traveling to Trappist Monasteries: An Interview with Paul Green

Tina Moore, at one of many campfires she and Paul Green shared during their journey

What if your partner or spouse asked you to quit your job so that you could travel? What if that seed of an idea they planted casually one... More >

Silence is Spoken Here: Spiritual Journeys & Later Vocations

Last week I talked with friends Paul Green and Tina Moore about their experiences traveling to 17 Trappist Monasteries scattered across the US. Through this journey that zigzagged from Massachusetts to California, they not only witnessed some life habits different from their own—they also participated in contemplative techniques that enhanced... More >

Alternative Spiritual Formation in the Italian Piedmont & Tuscany

Soon after I announced this summer 2018 spiritual formation trip, a full slate of travelers had signed up.  (A “full slate” means small–a half-dozen or so, a dozen at the most. ) So we were eleven, myself included, focused on “alternative communities.” We headed to the Italian Piedmont and Tuscany.

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Mark Sundeen, The Unsettlers & The Good Life

Mark Sundeen’s book, The Unsettlers: In Search of the Good Life in Today’s America

Mark Sundeen’s The Unsettlers: In Search of the Good Life in Today’s America ranks among the most interesting new books I read in 2017.  Here are some highlights from my  review... More >

Constance Fenimore Woolson and Zoar

Constance Fenimore Woolson

Linking “utopian” communal groups and American women writers in Italy, I spoke last weekend on Constance Fenimore Woolson and Zoar.

Zoar Separatist Community, Ohio. Woolson loved to visit from her home in Cleveland.

Woolson... More >

An American Woman in 19th-Century Palestine

Occasionally I read a not-recently-published book that moves me so that I wonder how I missed it when it first appeared.

Book cover of Barbara Kreiger’s Divine Expectations: An American Woman in 19th-Century Palestine.

 Divine Expectations is one such book. Since... More >

Vida Dutton Scudder, Christian Socialist for Several Generations

Yesterday my son, just returned from grad school,  told me he’s writing an essay on Vida Dutton Scudder.  Before stating her name, he hesitated.  Why the hesitation–in what was otherwise an enthusiastic report of his first term? Was it that Scudder, a Turn-of-the-Century and Progressive Era activist, is an... More >

Eating in Eden: Food and American Utopias

Drawing from our interests in utopian communities and religious history, my co-editor Martha Finch and I highlight in Eating in Eden (U Nebraska 2006) American food practices that range from those of colonial English Puritans and Spanish Catholics to those of more recent groups of European Jews and Indian Hindus.... More >

Bodies of Life: Shaker Literature and Literacies

In Bodies of Life: Shaker Literature and Literacies, I examine the roles of reading and writing in the celibate, religious communities known popularly as Shaker villages.  Questions driving the project emerge from the widely held belief that understanding and reasoning through texts (especially the Bible) under gird the best faith... More >

Damanhur: An Italian Earth-Centered Community

“Damanhur: Sustaining Changes in an Intentional Community,” is the first chapter in the book Spiritual and Visionary Communities: Out to Save the World. In it I probe the question of how a community in the mountains of northern Italy coalesced from small, urban gatherings of spiritual seekers in the 1970s to... More >

Famous American Vegetarians

Vegetarianism is not a recent American trend, influenced by immigrant cultures and travel abroad. Waves of interest in meatless diets have surged and ebbed through the centuries. In fact, even 18th-century American “founding father” Benjamin Franklin abstained from meat as a young adult. According to his Autobiography, Franklin was motivated... More >

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